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1214-1215.pdf - Google Drive

On March 17, 1926, Feng Yuxiang's Guominjun troops at Dagu Fort near Tianjin exchanged fire with Japanese warships carrying Zhang Zuolin's Fengtian troops. Japan accused the Chinese government of violating the Boxer Protocol and, with the other seven Boxer Powers, issued an ultimatum demanding the removal of all defenses between Beijing and the sea as set forth under the Protocols. The ultimatum provoked student protests in Beijing that were jointly organized by the left-wing Nationalists and Communists. Two thousand students marched on Duan Qirui's executive office and called for the abrogation of the unequal treaties.[153] Police opened fire and killed over 50 and wounded 200 in what became known as the March 18 Massacre.[154] The government issued warrants for the arrest of Nationalists and Communists including Li Dazhao, who fled to the Soviet Embassy in the Legation quarters.[153] Within weeks, Feng Yuxiang was defeated by Zhang Zuolin and Duan's government fell. After Zhang took power on May 1, 1926, both the Nationalists and Communists were driven underground.[155] A year later, Zhang Zuolin raided the Soviet Embassy in the Legation and seized Li Dazhao. Li and 19 others Communist and Nationalist activists were executed in Beijing on April 25, 1927.

1214-1215.pdf - Google Drive


On May 29, a group of students at Tsinghua University Middle School, organized the first "Red Guard" group to protect Chairman Mao from the enemies of the revolution. Students at other Beijing schools followed. In August, Mao praised the Red Guards and called on them to "bombard the headquarters" of bourgeois elements in government. The movement spread and Mao ordered that the Red Guards be given free rides on trains and room and board across the country to spread the revolution.[207] From August 18 to November 26, he presided over eight Red Guard rallies in Tiananmen Square attended by over 11 million youth. The rallies helped drive Liu Shaoqi from power.

Having halted classes and toppled school administrations, the Red Guards then turned to enemies of the revolution in broader society. They ransacked homes of class enemies in search of incriminating evidence, smashed cultural relics deemed to be remnants of feudal culture, and struggled against political and cultural luminaries who were accused of following the capitalist road. Within one month of Mao's first rally on August 18, they ransacked 114,000 homes in the city, seizing 3.3 million items and 75.2 million in cash.[208] During the height of the Red Guard fervor in August and September, at least 1,772 residents were killed.[207] Many were driven to suicide or beaten to death by the Red Guards.[207] Notable Beijing residents who took their own lives include deputy mayor Liu Ren, renowned writer Lao She and table tennis star and coach Rong Guotuan. Countless others suffered public humiliation, beatings and extrajudicial detentions at the hands of Red Guards and rebels. Many historical sites, including those designated by the city's historical protection bureau, were damaged or destroyed in the mayhem. Landmarks such as the Temple of Heaven, Beihai, Old and New Summer Palaces, Ming Tombs, Yonghe Lamsery and the Great Wall were also targeted.[209] Almost all houses of worship were shut down. The Forbidden City was protected on the orders of Premier Zhou Enlai.[210] Many city streets were renamed after revolutionary slogans. The Red Guards sought to rename the city itself as East is Red City.[210]

Ready for a wide array of applications, dual Gb LAN, dual DisplayPort connectors, and six USB ports (four of them USB 3.1) make up the I/O base of the ML510G-50. Additional expansion options include 802.11ac Wi-Fi, CAN Bus, two additional LAN, up to four COM ports, and fast, reliable M.2 storage drives, giving the ML510G-50 incredible versatility.

Germ-free mice live almost 100% to 600 days in contrast to their conventionally-reared counterparts that reach this point with a 60% survival probability (Thevaranjan et al. 2017). In addition, germ free mice do not display age-associated inflammation while their macrophages retain their antimicrobial activity (Thevaranjan et al. 2017). This indicates that age-associated changes of the microbiota are a significant driver of lifespan where TNF-mediated inflammation acting as an effector of morbidity. Indeed, treatment of mice with anti-TNF antibodies reversed age-associated changes in the microbiota and ameliorated life expectancy (Thevaranjan et al. 2017). Therefore, reversing these age-related microbiota changes represents a potential strategy for reducing age-associated inflammation and the accompanying morbidity (Thevaranjan et al. 2017).

Blood flow quantification using contrast-enhanced ultrasound was first described by Wei et al. [70] in a canine model. The same technique was used by Kishimoto et al. to measure renal blood flow, demonstrating a good correlation with changes in renal blood flow as estimated by PAH clearance [71]. Schwenger [72] and Benozzi [73] et al. demonstrated that contrast-enhanced ultrasound was able to distinguish acute rejection from acute tubular necrosis. Another study, in healthy volunteers demonstrated that contrast-enhanced ultrasound was able to detect a 20% decrease in renal blood flow as induced by an angiotensin II infusion [74]. Above all, contrast-enhanced ultrasound can provide real time visualization of the renal microcirculation. Because it is very well tolerated and can be applied at the bedside, it could in theory be used to determine changes in microcirculation after therapeutic interventions. This would enable us to better understand the intra-renal microcirculatory changes following our common interventions and potentially drive our practice in patients at risk of AKI. As an example, as illustrated in Figure 4, contrast-enhanced ultrasound was able to confirm a strong microcirculatory response to terlipressin in a patient with hepatorenal syndrome.

Older adult populations are at risk for zinc deficiency, which may predispose them to immune dysfunction and age-related chronic inflammation that drives myriad diseases and disorders. Recent work also implicates the gut microbiome in the onset and severity of age-related inflammation, indicating that dietary zinc status and the gut microbiome may interact to impact age-related host immunity. We hypothesize that age-related alterations in the gut microbiome contribute to the demonstrated zinc deficits in host zinc levels and increased inflammation. We tested this hypothesis with a multifactor two-part study design in a C57BL/6 mouse model. The two studies included young (2 month old) and aged (24 month old) mice fed either (1) a zinc adequate or zinc supplemented diet, or (2) a zinc adequate or marginal zinc deficient diet, respectively. Overall microbiome composition did not significantly change with zinc status; beta diversity was driven almost exclusively by age effects. Microbiome differences due to age are evident at all taxonomic levels, with more than half of all taxonomic units significantly different. Furthermore, we found 150 out of 186 genera were significantly different between the two age groups, with Bacteriodes and Parabacteroides being the primary taxa of young and old mice, respectively. These data suggest that modulating individual micronutrient concentrations does not lead to comprehensive microbiome shifts, but rather affects specific components of the gut microbiome. However, a phylogenetic agglomeration technique (ClaaTU) revealed phylogenetic clades that respond to modulation of dietary zinc status and inflammation state in an age-dependent manner. Collectively, these results suggest that a complex interplay exists between host age, gut microbiome composition, and dietary zinc status.

We find that aging elicits a substantial effect on the composition of the mouse gut microbiome, more so than nutritional zinc status or study effects. Reasons for this variation could include age-dependent changes in physiology that select for fundamentally different microbial communities or that micronutrient variation may in general only have very modest impacts on microbiome composition [8, 49]. Indeed, prior work has underscored the variation in the composition of the microbiome across human lifespan and between young and aged mice [3, 50, 51]. Prior work also points to intestinal inflammation and gut barrier integrity as being an age-dependent factor that drives the successional dynamics of the microbiome late in lifespan [52, 53].

We show here that these age-specific differences may contribute to age-specific effects in microbiome content independent of the immune modulating dietary micronutrient zinc, at least over the range tested in our studies, and that age-related differences in the microbiome are repeatable across multiple experiments. These observations suggest that mouse aging serves as an important driver of the gut microbiome and that investigations on the impacts of the diet on the gut microbiome may need to consider the age-dependent context of their observations. 041b061a72


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